Metaphoric Change - Test Set, Annotation Data and Results

This data collection contains a test set for metaphorical change with German lexemes as well as annotation data and results of a study at the IMS in 2017

Metaphoric Change - Test Set, Annotation Data and Results

Dominik Schlechtweg

This data collection supplementing the paper referenced below contains:

  • a metaphoric change test set with 95 German lexemes divided into two classes: (i) lexemes for which the authors found metaphoric change or (ii) no semantic change to occur in Deutsches Textarchiv (DTA). It comes as a tab-separated text file where each line of changing lexemes has the form

    lexeme   POS   class   change_date   frequency_around_change_date   description   source

    For every metaphoric lexeme there is exactly one stable lexeme from the same frequency area in order to balance the test set. Frequency information on any stable lexeme is relative to the corresponding metaphoric lexeme. Each line of a stable lexeme has the form

    lexeme   POS   class   first_occurrence_date   frequency_around_change_date   description   source

  • a rank resulting from the annotation of 560 use pairs of a subset of the metaphoric change test set measuring the increase of metaphoric uses over time for each lexeme;
  • the annotation guidelines;
  • the annotators judgements of all 560 uses. A source file is given allowing reconstruction of the date of each use in a pair from the judgement files and
  • the predicted ranks for the lexemes in the metaphoric change test set for each measure examined.

Find more information in the paper referenced below.


Dominik Schlechtweg, Stefanie Eckmann, Enrico Santus, Sabine Schulte im Walde and Daniel Hole. 2017. German in Flux: Detecting Metaphoric Change via Word Entropy. In Proceedings of CoNLL 2017. Vancouver, Canada, 2017.


The resources are freely available for education, research and other non-commercial purposes. For download, click here.

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