Diachronic Usage Relatedness (DURel)

Test Set and Annotation Data for Lexical Semantic Change in DTA Corpus

Diachronic Usage Relatedness (DURel)



Dominik Schlechtweg, Sabine Schulte im Walde, Stefanie Eckmann

This data collection contains diachronic semantic relatedness judgments for German word usage pairs. Find a description of the data format, code to process the data and further datasets on the WUGsite.

  • testset: a semantic change test set with 22 German lexemes divided into two classes: lexemes for which the authors found

      1. innovative or
      2. reductive meaning change

      occurring in Deutsches Textarchiv (DTA) in the 19th century. Note that for some lexemes the change is already observable slightly before 1800 and some lexemes occur more than once in the test set (see paper). The columns 'earlier' and 'later' contain the mean of all judgments for the respective word. The columns 'delta_later' and 'compare' contain the predictions of the annotation-based measures of semantic change developed in the paper.
  • tables: the full annotation table as annotators received it and a results table with rows in the same order. The columns 'date1' and 'date2' contain the date of the first and second use in the row. 'mean' contains the mean of all judgments for the use pair in this row without 0-judgments.
  • plots: data visualization plots.

We provide additional data under misc/. Please find more information on the provided data in the paper referenced below.


Dominik Schlechtweg, Sabine Schulte im Walde, Stefanie Eckmann. 2018. Diachronic Usage Relatedness (DURel): A Framework for the Annotation of Lexical Semantic Change. In Proceedings of the Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (NAACL HLT). New Orleans, Louisiana USA.



The resources are available per download.

Related Resources
  • WOCC: corpora from which the uses for annotation were sampled.
  • SURel: parallely annotated synchronic data set.
  • WUGs: Word Usage Graphs.
  • DURel Tool: semantic annotation tool for sentence pairs of a word.
  • Metaphoric Change: similarly annotated diachronic data set for metaphoric change.
This image shows Dominik Schlechtweg

Dominik Schlechtweg


Junior research group leader

This image shows Sabine Schulte im Walde

Sabine Schulte im Walde

Prof. Dr.

Akademische Rätin (Associate Professor)

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