Automatisch generierte Normen für Abstrakheit, Arousal, Vorstellbarkeit und Valenz für deutsche Lemmata

Typ ExperimentData
Titel Automatisch generierte Normen für Abstrakheit, Arousal, Vorstellbarkeit und Valenz für deutsche Lemmata
Autor Maximilian Köper & Sabine Schulte im Walde


This resource contains a collection of 350 000 German lemmatised words, rated on four psycholinguistic attributes. All ratings were obtained via a supervised learning algorithm that automatically calculates a numerical rating for each word and each affective attribute.

We applied this algorithm to four different rating types: abstractness, arousal, imageability and valence.

Abstract words refer to things that we cannot perceive directly with our senses (idea, politics, ...), concrete words refer to things that we can perceive (image, scent, ...). A large subset of concrete words have a high imageability, i.e., these words refer to things that we can actually see. Valence determines the pleasantness of a word (gift vs. punishment). Arousal describes the intensity of emotion provoked by a stimulus (alert vs. calm).

The following table presents some examples for adjectives and adverbs. The dataset also contains verbs and nouns.

Adj+Adv Rating
aufgeblättert 8.44
beinlang 8.32
paradox 0.63
rechtfertigbar 0.36
bestialisch 9.33
gewalttätig 9.25
satzweise 0.81
ausgerollt 0.71
neonerleuchtet 9.83
schwarzverhüllt 9.61
gewiss 0.58
unstrittig 0.41
wundervoll 9.69
wunderbar 9.69
katastrophenmässig 0.39
ausblutend 0.37


Maximilian Köper, Sabine Schulte im Walde
Automatically Generated Norms of Abstractness, Arousal, Imageability and Valence for 350,000 German Lemmas
In: Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC). Portorož, Slovenia, May 2016.

Please consider to additional cite the training resource publication:

  • Võ et al. (2009)
  • Lahl et al. (2009)
  • Kanske and Kotz (2010)
  • Schmidtke et al. (2014)
  • The MRC Psycholinguistic Database
  • Brysbaert et al. (2014)

See or paper for the exact references.


The resources are freely available for education, research and other non-commercial purposes. For download please click here or contact Maximilian Köper or Sabine Schulte im Walde to obtain the data.